Wanchalerm Noomuean yearns for the days he was known on Phuket as tour guide Jimmy and every month showed hundreds of international visitors around the famous Thai island.
Covid-19 wiped out the 31-year-old’s job 15 months ago. While Jimmy remained on Phuket and the Thai government in July started allowing inoculated international visitors on to the island, their numbers are tiny and there is no demand for tour guides. The outlook for Jimmy getting back a job he loved isn’t good.
“I forgot how to speak English already,” he said, smiling wanly. To pay his bills, Jimmy sold off some jewellery and a car. He ekes out an income by occasionally cooking and selling pad thai noodles at the garage of a tenement he rents.
Jimmy is part of Thailand’s growing ranks of unemployed or barely employed, though he wouldn’t be counted in the official statistics on the jobless total because Thailand — using International Labour Organization guidelines — doesn’t consider as unemployed a person who works at least one hour a week.
Also, more than half of the roughly 38m in the Thai workforce are in the informal sector and aren’t included in jobless data. These factors help keep Thailand’s official unemployment rate low — seemingly unproblematic — compared with regional peers and developed countries.
But the low Thai unemployment rate masks a number of problems that are having an impact on the country’s workforce, which has been badly hurt by Covid, and could create political headaches for the government, which is struggling to contain the raging coronavirus.
The latest published Thai unemployment rate, covering 2021’s first quarter and announced in May, was 1.96 per cent, a 12-year high. Danucha Pichayanan, secretary-general of the national economic planning agency, known as NESDC, described that rate as “drastically” higher than previous levels. (The rate was 1.03 per cent in the first three months of 2020, when Covid began to hammer the world, and 1.86 per cent in the last quarter of 2020.)
In May, the official unemployment rate was 3.8 per cent in Singapore, 3 per cent in Japan, 5.8 per cent in the US and 7.7 per cent in the Philippines.
Danucha said the Thai rate was “expected to rise again”, and that is a certainty, given how Covid case numbers (and deaths) have shot up in Thailand since May, with outbreaks of the Delta variant. Daily confirmed cases reached 15,000 on average in the past few weeks.
Even if the unemployment figure remains low by world standards, it is a worry.
“For us, a 2 per cent unemployment rate is a crisis,” said Tanit Sorat, vice-chair at the Employers’ Confederation of Thai Trade and Industry (ECOTHAI).
According to data from a telecom operator, 1.6m people moved out from big cities and popular tourist areas and relocated to their hometowns between December 2019 and April 2021.
Traditionally, going back to rural areas has been a safety valve for when jobs in Bangkok and other cities have been lost. “Being able to easily enter agricultural sector and other self-employed jobs helps to quickly absorb unemployed labour from other economic sectors,” said the Bank of Thailand in its response to Nikkei Asia’s written query.
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But the number leaving urban areas in the time of Covid has been too large to comfortably handle. “The inflow of people is too overwhelming for the rural areas to absorb,” said Piyabutr Cholvjarn, president of Kenan Foundation Asia, a non-profit community development organisation.
Covid has exposed how Thailand had become over-reliant on tourism, which has accounted for about 12 per cent of gross domestic product, for creating jobs and economic growth
One example of the people moving away from tourist spots because of a complete loss of business is Rodjana Kachachai, who had operated a T-shirt shop at Bangkok’s Chatuchak weekend market. “My shop depended a lot on foreign clients. Now I cannot earn a single penny from selling T-shirts,” said the 47-year-old.
Rodjana returned to her hometown of Suphanburi, 100 kilometres north-west of Bangkok. She now runs an organic vegetable farm, which has sales of about Bt6,000 to Bt9,000 ($180 to $275) per month — a fraction of the Bt40,000 the T-shirt shop generated.
Another economic victim of Covid is Nithi, a cocktail waitress at Bar Beer, a Thai-style open-air pub, in the beach town of Pattaya on the Gulf of Thailand. The government considered bars as hotbeds of coronavirus infection, and ordered them to close every time the country faced a rise in cases. Pattaya has gone from party town to ghost town.
“Every pub had several girls to entertain customers, but they all vanished,” said 28-year-old Nithi, who declined to give her last name. She said she received some income from selling on goods bought from internet shopping sites, and that she got financial support from a British boyfriend.
Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha’s government, which has been criticised for its response to Covid, has provided some aid to those hit hard by the pandemic. This has mainly entailed short-term measures such as cash payments and soft loan facilities for small and medium-sized enterprises.
People in the informal sector were given Bt5,000 per month from April to June, 2020. Taxi drivers, taxi motorcyclists and street vendors, who have small earnings, were given Bt3,500 for January and February this year in another programme. Applicants had to go through a complicated process to receive help from the programmes. Payments were often delayed. Rodjana said she received “very little” support money, “but better than nothing”.
On top of short-term issues faced by the unemployed, there are also long-term ones that existed well before the pandemic brought hardship to many people.
“The unreliable labour statistics and seemingly low unemployment rate continuously failed to (raise an) alert about the country’s labour issues to draw correct policy responses,” said Yongyuth Chalamwong, research director for human resource policies at the independent Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI).
Among the issues not tackled by a series of Thai governments are improving laws for protecting workers and revamping Thailand’s education system, which is not teaching the skills workers will need in the digital economy that is being rapidly expanded in the wake of Covid. These are long-term problems, and recent Thai governments — some set up after military coups — have often focused on short-term issues such as remaining in power.
The country set up a digital transformation initiative named Thailand 4.0, but lacks skilled labour to push the programme forward. The public and private sectors both failed to fully implement meritocratic values in hiring or paying labour in nepotistic Thai society, discouraging potential workers from enthusiastically learning new skills. “Thai children tend to resort to study easy subjects,” Tanit of ECOTHAI lamented.
The Bank of Thailand warned that the pandemic might blunt workers’ skills. “The Covid-19 will affect work format in the future, and will require labour with new and diverse skills,” the central bank said.
Some skilled workers were forced to engage in low-productivity jobs, which may not have been in line with their original skills. There is also a tendency for fresh college graduates to remain unemployed for longer periods, with the risk that their skills and education will become outdated.
Meanwhile, wealth inequality has increased in the kingdom during the Covid crisis. The World Bank estimated that 7.4 per cent of Thailand’s population lived on less than $5.50 a day in 2020, an increase of 1.2 percentage points from the previous year. According to a report by Forbes in July, the aggregated assets of the kingdom’s 50 richest families rose more than 20 per cent to $160bn since such wealth was last measured 15 months earlier.
The total number of cases in the country since the start of the pandemic doubled in July. The government once again had to implement lockdown measures and a night-time curfew in affected provinces including Bangkok, causing more businesses to close permanently. The measures were extended until the end of August.
Under Prayuth’s initiative, south-east Asia’s second-largest economy plans to fully reopen its borders to vaccinated international visitors from October in order to revive tourism and related businesses. But delay in containing the third wave would adversely affect foreigners’ appetite to visit the kingdom. All of these are risk factors that could further drive up the unemployment rate.
If that happens, it could affect political developments. TDRI’s Yongyuth said that in the past few decades, major crises involving labour had “tended to be followed by changes of government”.
If many more jobs are lost, that could cause young people without prospects to go back on the streets, as they did in 2019 and 2020 in a youth-led anti-establishment movement that called for Prayuth, the longest serving prime minister since the 1980s, to step down. The movement was subdued after measures were taken to silence it, such as use of the country’s lèse majesté law. But more people, and industry groups, have openly criticised the Prayuth administration’s handling of Covid and the economic situation. Rallies are gradually gathering steam again.
“I don’t think lives of ordinary Thais improved in the seven years since the 2014 coup,” said a jobseeker nicknamed Ida. She has not been able to secure a stable job since graduating from college in 2019. Resentment about the status quo last week drove the 25-year-old to attend her first anti-establishment rally calling for Prayuth’s resignation. “We will not wait for two more years,” said Ida. “But if we have to, I think Thais know what to do in the 2023 general elections.”
Additional reporting by Apornrath Phoonphongphiphat in Bangkok
A version of this article was first published by Nikkei Asia on August 17 2021. ©2021 Nikkei Inc. All rights reserved.